Village Descriptions

Upper Skagit-Sedro Woolley section

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. SPELL-whuhn ('prairie'). Nooksack. On Anderson Creek near present town of Goshen. Village included longhouse later moved to Deming. Located near fishing site as well as prairie where wild carrots were dug.  A large communal smokehouse was located near here.  Several other villages were located up the Nooksack River from this site, near present-day towns of Everson and Lynden.  At the latter was another smokehouse as well as a large communal fish trap.  (1, 2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. t’HEE-teekh. Nooksack. On Anderson Creek about a mile S of SPELL-whuhn village.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. kwee-EE-kwee-whess. Nooksack. On Nooksack River several miles below fork. Fishing site here as well.  (1, 3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. WHAH-way-lets. Nooksack. On Nooksack River just below fork. Fishing site here as well.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. nuh-wheek-ee-UM (‘clear water’). Nooksack. On South Fork Nooksack River several miles above fork. Fishing site here as well.  (1, 3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. kwee-EE'k-kwem. Nooksack. On Middle Fork Nooksack River near Canyon Cr. Fishing site here as well.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. TSAHK. Nooksack. Upper Samish River. Perhaps only summer village with one longhouse. Fishing site.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. hahch-wah-AHM-eck. Nooksack. South end Lake Whatcom.  (1, 3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. STEEK-sabsh. noo-WAH-hah (a large group originally at coastal sites, pushed inland by Samish). Samish Lake, S end at tip. One large winter house.  Other noo-WAH-hah villages were located on the Samish River at Jarman Prairie near the confluence of Friday Creek, and at Warner Prairie near the confluence of Dry Creek.  (4, 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. kee-keek-AH-low-sah-lay. Lower Skagit. On S Fork Skagit River at mouth of Carpenter Creek between present towns of Conway and Fir. Principal village of Kikiallus group.  (5, 6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11. kwaht-kahd’ch-KED. Lower Skagit. At confluence of N Fork and S Fork Skagit River.  (6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. TSAL-gah-hahbsh. Upper Skagit. On Skagit River, at Mt Vernon, just N of town and W of cemetery. One large house. Collective name for people at sites between Mt Vernon and Sedro Woolley was duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH.  (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13. swee-WEES-hub. Upper Skagit. On S bank of Skagit River, S of present town of Burlington, E of RR bridge. One large house. Collective name for people at sites between Mt Vernon and Sedro Woolley was duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH.  (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH. Upper Skagit. On W or N bank of Skagit River across from opening of Nookachamps Cr. This was principal village and ceremonial center for people at sites between Mt Vernon and Sedro Woolley including those on Nookachamps Cr drainage.  (7)

 

 

 

 

 

15. WHATS-awlk-uhl (‘house on high ground’). Upper Skagit. On bench E side Nookachamps Creek above Barney Lake. One large winter house. Famous fishing site for suckers and silver salmon.  There is a legend that this village was once nearly wiped out by Skagit raiders, only one young woman and her small brother-in-law surviving.  Years passed, the couple had two boy children and returned to their old village site.  The younger boy gained special powers which allowed him to avenge the massacre in an attack on the village of aht-sah-LAY-dee on Camano Island.  Another story tells how a young man from this village first received the SKAW-deh-leech, or magic cedar board.  People here were considered duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH, with their principal village site at mouth of Nookachamps Creek on Skagit River.  (4, 7, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16. TSOO-la-tsahbsh. Upper Skagit. East side Big Lake. One large winter house. People here considered duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH, with principal village site at mouth of Nookachamps Creek on Skagit River.  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17. kah-BAH-la. Upper Skagit. At Lake McMurray. Mainly summer village with small permanent population. Beaver taken here. People here considered duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH, with principal village site at mouth of Nookachamps Creek on Skagit River.  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18. SKUH-wh’shud. Upper Skagit. At Clear Lake (which at time of occupancy drained into Skagit River). One large winter house. Trout and salmon fishery. People here considered part of duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH extended village.  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19. kah-KAH-wat-seed. Upper Skagit. On Skagit River at the present town of Sterling. One large winter house. People here were part of extended village called buh-see-kwee-GWEELTS (‘people of the big rocks’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

20 .wah-WAH-la. Upper Skagit. On west bank of Skagit R at Skiyou Slough, E of the present town of Sedro Woolley. Three small houses. People here were part of extended village called buh-see-kwee-GWEELTS (‘people of the big rocks’).  (4, 7)   Near here, also just above Sedro Woolley, on the little island N of the mouth of Dead Man's Slough is the site of another village, WHOO-eed-zahb, considered part of duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH extended village. (8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21. kah-KAH-wat-seed (same name as #19). Upper Skagit. On Skagit River at present town of Minkler near Ross Island. Three large houses. People here were part of extended village called buh-see-kwee-GWEELTS (people of the big rocks’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22. TAHTS-eets. Upper Skagit. On north bank of Skagit River between present town of Lyman and Etach Creekon the Shoemaker Jim allotment. One large winter house. People here were part of small extended village called choo-buhk-AHBSH (‘people who climb the banks’), so named for their need to periodically move to escape flooding from the river.  (4, 7, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23. SKWUHB. Upper Skagit. On south bank Skagit River at mouth of Day Creek. One large winter house. People here were part of small extended village called choo-buhk-AHBSH (‘people who climb the banks’), so named for their need to periodically move to escape flooding from the river.  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24. SLOHK'wh. Upper Skagit. On Skagit River just W of present town of Hamilton. Six longhouses were here.  This is where the present-day Skagit elder Vi Hilbert lived as a child. People here were called bah-slah-k’AH-look. Chum and steelhead caught here with lift nets and fish spears.  (4, 7, 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

25. leelh-ts’KAH-yeck-dahp. Upper Skagit. On N side Skagit River, E of Gandy Creek near present town of Birdsview. One large house. Furthest W site of largest and most powerful extended village on Skagit drainage, SBAH-lee-ook’w (‘mixture of people’). Women here gathered roots of bracken fern at one of few natural prairies on the drainage.  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26. dah-KWEE-kub. Upper Skagit. On S bank Skagit R, either side of Finney Creek. Two small winter houses. Part of largest and most powerful extended village on Skagit River drainage, SBAH-lee-ook’w (‘mixture of people’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27. bee-OOS. Upper Skagit. On S bank Skagit River at Cape Horn on a promontory. Large winter house. Important fishing site. Part of largest and most powerful extended village on Skagit River drainage, SBAH-lee-ook’w (‘mixture of people’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

28. SPAH-dahk. Upper Skagit. On N bank Skagit River, just SW of present town of Concrete. Two small winter houses. Canoe loads of fishermen lined up to take turns here using their dip nets at height of salmon run. River here famous for deep hole and whirlpool where wealth-giving spirit lived. Part of largest and most powerful extended village on Skagit River drainage, SBAH-lee-ook’w (‘mixture of people’)  (4, 7).

 

 

 

 

 

 

29. d’whey-KELB. Upper Skagit. On N bank of Skagit River W of confluence with Baker River. Five small winter houses. Site of stockaded village surrounded by booby-trapped dry moat was here or nearby. Very important fishing site. Part of largest and most powerful extended village on Skagit R drainage, SBAH-lee-ook’w (‘mixture of people’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

30. d’whey-kell-BOO-tseed (refers to dirty color of river hereabouts). Upper Skagit. On N bank of Skagit River, E of Baker River mouth. One large winter house. Site of stockaded village surrounded by booby-trapped dry moat here or nearby. Very important fishing site. Part of largest and most powerful extended village on Skagit River drainage, SBAH-lee-ook’w (‘mixture of people’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31. hah-heel-WAH-keed. Upper Skagit. On N bank Skagit River, either side of Jackman Creek. One small winter house each side. Part of largest and most powerful extended village on Skagit River drainage, SBAH-lee-ook’w (‘mixture of people’).  (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32. slhah-OO-tseed. Upper Skagit. On either side Skagit River near present town of Van Horn. One large winter house on N bank, 4 small summer houses on S bank (to accommodate seasonal fishermen). Part of largest and most powerful extended village on Skagit River drainage, SBAH-lee-ook’w (‘mixture of people’).  (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

33. KWHUK-wuh-kwuh’kw (‘white face’). Upper Skagit. On N side Skagit River, E of present town of Van Horn. One large winter house, 3 small summer houses. Site named for exposed cliff face on opposite side of river where slide had destroyed earlier longhouse. Famous fishing site where people set nets. Furthest E site of largest and most powerful extended village on Skagit R drainage, SBAH-lee-ook’w (‘mixture of people’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34. JEE-juck-shud (‘the foot of the mountain stuck in the river’). Upper Skagit. On the N side of the Skagit River, at the bend, E of the present town of Sauk. One small winter house. Part of the extended village SKEE-lah-yoo-tseed.  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35. KOO-kwah-dees. Upper Skagit. On the N side of the Skagit River, E of the present town of Sauk. One large winter house. This house, like almost all houses on the drainage, was burned in the mid-1800s at the time of the smallpox epidemic. Part of extended village SKEE-lah-yoo-tseed.  (7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36. hay-tahl-OOS-hay. Upper Skagit. On the Skagit River, 2 large winter houses, one E and one W of the present town of Rockport. Part of the extended village SKEE-lah-yoo-tseed.  (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37. buh-seel-ah-YOO-tseed (‘people who live at the mouth of the river’). Upper Skagit. On the S bank of Skagit River, just E of the mouth of the Sauk River. One large house washed away possibly in early 1800s. All the villagers of the Sauk drainage would come and stay here during winter religious ceremonies.  (7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

38. SKEE-whoo-tseed. Upper Skagit. On the N side Skagit River at bend 3 miles above mouth of Sauk River. One winter house,120’X40’, was largest in all the Upper Skagit territory and could hold all the Upper Skagit in meeting. sdlhah-BEEB-tuh-keed, also known as Captain Campbell or Camel, a famous chief and religious leader of the 1800s lived in this house. Part of the extended village buh-SKEE-hoo-tseed (‘people of the upper place’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

39. POO-kwah-lee-tsoo and sah-HEE-pup. Upper Skagit. On N and S bank, respectively, of Skagit River at mouth of Rocky Creek. One winter house each. Located at open area where Upper Skagit women dug roots. Part of the extended village buh-SKEE-hoo-tseed (‘people of the upper place’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40. [name not known]. Upper Skagit. West end of Baker Lake on promontory. One small winter house. Primarily a summer fishing place with small year-round population. Considered part of large extended village SBAH-lee-ook’w.  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41. JUCK-tsud. Upper Skagit. N side Skagit River, 1/2 mi W of present town of Marblemount. One large winter house. Part of extended village buh-SKEE-whee’wh (‘people way up river’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42. buh-SKEE-whee’wh (‘people way up river’). Upper Skagit. N side Cascade River, near its mouth with Skagit River, 1 mi W of Marblemount. One very large winter house 120’x40’ accommodating 20 families. Central site of extended village with same name.  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43. [name not known]. Upper Skagit. On NW bank Skagit River, 1 mile below mouth of Diobsud Creek. Two small winter houses, 2 families each. Part of extended village buh-SKEE-whee’wh (‘people way up river’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

44. [name not known]. Upper Skagit. On SE bank Skagit River across from mouth of Bacon Creek. One large winter house with 10 families. Part of extended village buh-SKEE-whee’wh (‘people way up river’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45. TSKWAHB. Upper Skagit. North side of Skagit River, W of Damnation Creek. One large winter house. Part of last upriver extended village, kwah-bah-TSAHBSH, which also included winter house sites at Thornton Creek, [name not known] , and Goodell Creek, dah-WAH’ee-leeb (‘thread’).  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46. HOO-HOO-tseed. Upper Skagit. On E bank Sauk River, N of White Creek at its mouth. Fish weir here. Part of Sauk drainage extended village SAHK’w-beek (‘people of digging roots’).  (7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47. [name not known]. Upper Skagit. On E bank Sauk River, S of Suiattle River at its mouth. One winter house. Part of Sauk drainage extended village SAHK’w-beek (‘people of digging roots’).  (7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

48. SAHK’w-beek (‘people who dig roots’). Upper Skagit. On E bank Sauk River at Sauk Prairie N of present town of Darrington. Four (alternatively, eight) winter houses with minimum year-round population of 50-60. Large semi-cultivated area here where women inherited rights to dig roots. Famous fish weir here as well. People came here for winter religious ceremonies and August root digging. Chief village of Sauk River drainage extended village with same name.  (7, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. On N Fork Stillaguamish River opposite present town of Hazel. "Two large homes, 150 to 200 people, and a cemetery" at this site probably circa 1850.  One of 4 main Stillaguamish villages.  (5, 6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. On N Fork Stillaguamish River near present town of Oso. Variously described as one of 4 main Stillaguamish villages and also as a large camping ground, a place for congregating during berrying and hunting seasons.  (5, 6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. On N Fork Stillaguamish River near present town of Trafton. One of 4 main Stillaguamish villages. "Four large buildings, 2 homes and a smokehouse. Two hundred people lived in this village and there was also a cemetery here"--probably circa 1850.  (5, 6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. "Inventory of Native American religious use, practices, localities and resources..." by Astrida R. Blukis Onat and Jan L. Hollenbeck.  Seattle:  Institute of Cooperative Research, 1981.

2.  "Central Coast Salish" by Wayne Suttles in Handbook of North American Indians, Northwest Coast (v.7).  Washington DC:  Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.

3.  "Indian and Pioneer Settlement of the Nooksack Lowland" by David G. Tremaine.  Bellingham:  Center for Pacific Northwest Studies, Western Washington University, 1975.

4.  Valley of the Spirits, the Upper Skagit Indians of Western Washington by June M. Collins.  Seattle:  University of Washington Press, 1974.

5.  "The Coast Salish of Puget Sound" by Marian W. Smith in American Anthropologist, v. 43 [new series]: 197-211, 1941.

6.  "Commission Findings on the Coast Salish and western Washington Indians" by Indian Claims Commission in Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians, v.5.  New York:  Garland Publishing, 1974.

7. "Cultural Resource Overview and Sample Survey of the Skagit Wild and Scenic River... " by Astrida R. Blukis Onat, Lee A. Bennett, and Jan L. Hollenbeck.  Seattle:  Institute of Cooperative Research, 1980.

8.  Indians of Skagit County by Chief Martin J. Sampson.  La Conner [WA]:  Skagit County Historical Society, 1972.

9.  Lushootseed Culture and the Shamanic Odyssey by Jay Miller.  Lincoln [NE] and London:  University of Nebraska Press, 1999.