Village Descriptions

Snohomish-Everett section








1. SAHK’w-beek (‘people who dig roots’). Upper Skagit. On E bank Sauk River at Sauk Prairie N of present town of Darrington. Four winter houses with minimum year-round population of 50-60. Large semi-cultivated area here where women inherited rights to dig roots. Famous fish weir here as well. People came here for winter religious ceremonies and August root digging. Chief village of Sauk River drainage extended village with same name.  (1)








2. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. On N Fork Stillaguamish River opposite present town of Hazel. "Two large homes, 150 to 200 people, and a cemetery" at this site probably circa 1850.  One of 4 main Stillaguamish villages.  (2, 3)








3. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. On N Fork Stillaguamish River near present town of Oso.  Variously described as one of 4 main Stillaguamish villages and also as a large camping ground, a place for congregating during berrying and hunting seasons.  (2, 3)







4. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. On N Fork Stillaguamish River across river from Trafton. One of 4 main Stillaguamish villages. "Four large buildings, 2 homes and a smokehouse. Two hundred people lived in this village and there was also a cemetery here"--probably circa 1850.  Inside one substantial longhouse used for potlatches pictures were painted or carved onto plaques along the inner walls.  (2, 3, 4, 9)








5. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. At junction of N and S Forks Stillaguamish River near present town of Arlington. One of 4 main Stillaguamish villages according to one source.  "It had two large houses...and several hundred people"--probably about 1850.  Possibly on land homesteaded by J. H. Persun and W. H. Ford.  (2, 3)








6. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. On E side of Stillaguamish River between present towns of Florence and Silvana, closer to latter. One large house in which several families lived. Chief here was Quil-Que-Kadam. Potatoes were grown here mid-1800s. Settler Robert Robb homesteaded tract containing this village.  (2)








7. [name not known]. Stillaguamish.  Reported located in Lots 5-6, Twp 32, Sec 30NR4EW. One large house with about 5 families. Probably mid-1800s the chief here was Good-wich. Tract containing this village was homesteaded by settler James Cuthbert.  (2)








8. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. On Stillaguamish River across river from village 10 (and present town of Florence). Possibly 460 people lived here mid-1800s. This was location of a "strong" house for storing blankets, furs, etc. The house was built of big logs set on end with heavy cedar slabs for a roof.  A trench was build around the house with sharply pointed stakes planted at the bottom.  The trench was thinly covered so that invaders would fall into it and be impaled.  Tract containing village houses was homesteaded by settler Gardner Goodridge.  (2, 9)








9. [name uncertain, possibly SKAY-wuks or sehl-TAHCH]. Stillaguamish. On Stillaguamish River at or near present town of Stanwood. Three large houses with an estimated 250 people reportedly living here. Probably mid-1800s the chief here was named Sa-Quil-Ten.  (2, 9)









10. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. On Stillaguamish River at or near present town of Florence, across river from village 8. Reportedly had 3 potlatch houses. Tract containing village was homesteaded by settler John Silva.  (2)








11. [name not known]. Stillaguamish. Near S mouth of Stillaguamish River (here called Hat Slough) about 4 miles S of present town of Stanwood. It contained 2 large houses sheltering possibly 100 people in early-mid 1800s. According to some reports residents here were called kwats-AH’kw-beewh  or Quadsak   This may have been home to Chief Quil-Que-Kadam instead of village 6.  (2, 5, 9)








12. [name not known]. Stillaguamish [pre-contact], Snohomish [post-contact]. On coast S of mouth of Stillaguamish River at present town of Warm Beach. Two houses here and cabins for visitors in mid-1800s. One chief here was called Zis-a-ba.  (2)








13. tw’TOE-hob. Snohomish. On coast S of mouth of Stillaguamish River and about one mile N of present town of Warm Beach. A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5)








14. k’WHABS. Snohomish. On coast a little over a mile NW of small, legendary granite outcrop known as SPEE-bee-dah (‘my baby’), near a ravine where a small crooked road touches the beach. "Lots of Indians there." A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5)








15. WHESH-ud (‘splashing water’). Snohomish. On Camano Island at Camano Head. A village was said to have been here before the great slide of 1825 in which a substantial portion of the Head slid into present Possession Sound. After that time this area was avoided by the older people except for seasonal clamming. A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5)








16. TSEHT-skluhks (‘ragged nose’). Snohomish. On Whidbey Island E of present town of Langley at Sandy Point. Village with potlatch house which drew visitors from as far away as Samish. Clam beds nearby. A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5)








17. D’GWAD’wk (‘in the basket’, or alternatively, 'lots of a certain species of crabs'). Snohomish. Lower Whidbey Island on the spit at E side of Cultus Bay. An important early village site that was the center for the island Snohomish. Potlatch house here attended on occasion by Duwamish and Suquamish as well. Five longhouses reported here early-mid 1800s. A stone fence was built on the spit about 1850 to prevent erosion. The village abandoned about 1870 when residents relocated to Tulalip. Two cemeteries here. A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5, 8)








18. tsuht-TSAHL-ee. Snohomish. On Hat Island probably on spit which used to be at NW end. Clam beds and springs were nearby. When nearby Camano Head slid into Sound in 1825 (see also village 15) many at this village were drowned in the resulting tidal wave. By mid-1800s the island was only used for seasonal clamming and fishing and people--probably including Snoqualmie and Skykomish as well as Snohomish--sheltered here in temporary mat houses. A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5)








19. tw’LAY-lup (‘far end’). Snohomish. Four house sites were located around Tulalip Bay--"one where the present potlatch house stands, one across the river, one just beyond the church, and one between the docks below the hill, just beyond the dining hall," reported an informant, Mrs Agnes James, who was interviewed about 1950. A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5)








20. kw’sh-UHL-kwud or, more commonly, ts’LAHKS (‘lots of rocks’, referring both to the Point here and to the village). Snohomish. At present Priest Point. Three big longhouses plus a large potlatch house, the latter--at least--located W of the Point. Considered at one time to be a "low class" village without palisade or warriors, whose occupants fled, rather than fought, invaders. A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5)








21. kwul-KWUL-oo. Snohomish. On shore about half-way between Priest Point and mouth of Quilcedar Creek, known as the Perceval site. A village with potlatch house similar in population to that at Priest Point, above. Near this village there was a pile of clam shells about six feet in height running parallel and close to the shore for a distance of one quarter mile. A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5)







22. kull-SEE-duh (literally 'emptying and crooked'). Snohomish. From near the mouth of Quilceda Creek and upstream for about one mile there were about 5 pre-1850 house sites roughly centered on the area around the Tulalip Road bridge. Close to the mouth of the creek on the south bank was the residence of Mowich Sam, a signer of the 1855 treaty. A little south of the bridge on the north bank were several houses--called SOO-at-tsud--one belonging to David S’watcida whose canoes were used to ferry across the creek here--part of an ancient trail from tw’LAY-lup running east. Also south of the bridge on the north bank but closer to kw’TAH-suh-dahm (‘sturgeon’) creek, on a small knoll were a potlatch house and more than one smaller houses. This was the Charlie Jules residence site. About 250 yards above the bridge was at least one house with three or more families. This location was called KWET-kwos (‘white-faced little bluff’) from the feature across the stream from this site--later known as the Agnes James residence. Finally, not far upstream from the James site was a big house containing two or more families...The silver salmon run on this creek was famous among the people of central eastern Puget Sound and one of the named reasons for choosing this area for the reservation. After the treaty there was a large influx of residents and much movement among the different locations. A s’doh-HOHBSH band village.  (5, 8)







23. hee-BOH-luhb (name refers to 'doves', or alternatively 'place where the water boils out of the ground'.  The former meaning may be confusedly applied to this place since a similar-sounding word translated as 'wild pigeons' refers to another site a little further south). Snohomish. On the waterfront in the present town of Everett, at the foot of the bluff called Blackmans Point, where Legion Park is now. Four cedar plank longhouses each 100’x40’ plus a big potlatch house. This was the largest Snohomish village and the leaders here had the greatest influence in deciding matters concerning the entire s’doh-HOHBSH band.  (5, 8)








24. sbah-DAHLH. Snohomish. At the present town of Snohomish in the area on the bank of the Pilchuck River from the old state highway to Monroe about one-quarter mile down to the First Street cut. This is the furthest east of the s’doh-HOHBSH band villages(5)








25. [name not known]. Snohomish. On Pilchuck River about one mile N of sbah-DAHLH "where a gravel and stone quarry now [about 1950] is". Ancestral site of Pilchuck Jack’s house. People here were of the kwet-lhee-BOOBSH band.  (5)








26. tb’TSAHS. Snohomish. On Pilchuck River near present town of Machias. Two house sites--one was about one-quarter mile N of steel bridge over river on level ground opposite mouth of Little Pilchuck Creek, the other was about one-third mile below bridge.  The people here were of the kwet-lhee-BOOBSH band.  (5)








27. [name not known]. Snohomish. Near Skykomish River at Beecher Lake on the flats below the present town of Cathcart, probably on the old Earle Bailey property. Evidence for village here is circumstantial--the discovery of relics, graves, cedar log remnants and tons of clam shells. There was a confirmed camp spot nearby, at the river, on the old Liebeck property. People here were most likely of the stuk-TAH-lee-doobsh band.  (5)








28. suh-TUH-kahd (‘like a fishtrap’). Snohomish. On S bank of Skykomish River about one mile downstream from TAH’kw-tuh-tsid (village 29) across the river from the Tester bluff. Site has been washed away by river changing course. This was ancestral home of the high-born Jimmicum family. Probably at least three longhouses here in addition to a potlatch house. People here were of the s’doh-doh-HOHBSH band, although the Jimmicums at least were intermarried with other bands.  (5)








29. TAH’kw-tuh-tsid. Snohomish. On S bank of Skykomish River, 2 miles SW of present town of Monroe, 1/2 mile W of Swiss Hall just off present Tualco Loop Rd. An old village site in a once thickly populated area. At least four or five longhouses here plus potlatch house and grave sites. People here were of the s’doh-doh-HOHBSH band.  (5)








30. bus-AHDSH. Snohomish. On Skykomish River by present-day bridge at S edge of town of Monroe. The people here were of the s’doh-doh-HOHBSH band.  (5)








31. seh-kweh-GWEHLTS.  Skykomish.  On the flats S of Skykomish River opposite Fern Bluff close to the bank of a south to north bend in the river, several miles E of Elwell Creek. "Lots of Indians lived there," according to informant of mid-1800s. People here probably belonged to stuk-TAH-lee-doobsh band.  (5)








32. [name not known, referred to as the "Kanim Place" after the last residents--no relation to Snoqualmie Kanims]. Skykomish. On N bank Skykomish River one mile E of mouth of Elwell Creek. Old village mostly abandoned in mid-1800s. Uncertain whether people here belonged to stuk-TAH-lee-doobsh or s’doh-doh-HOHBSH band.  (5)








33. stuk-TAH-lee-doobsh. Skykomish. Near present town of Sultan on S bank of S slough of Skykomish River at W end of long bridge across river and slough. Permanent fishing place for STEE-shub fish here. Evidently central village of stuk-TAH-lee-doobsh band.  (5)








34. tw’TSUL-tud (proper name of one-time headman of this village). Skykomish. On N bank of Skykomish River where present town of Sultan (which derives its name from original village) is located. Central village of SKEH-whubsh people.  (5)








35. [name not known]. Skykomish. On Sultan River 4 miles N of present town of Sultan. One house here.  (2, 3)








36. [name not known]. Skykomish. Probably on Skykomish River at present town of Startup. Residents may have moved here as overflow from tw’TSUL-tud or hai-TUD. According to one informant the people here were part of SKEH-whubsh band, but "troublemakers--not highclass". Trail to Sultan Basin hunting grounds began here.  (5)








37. HAI-tud (‘fish-trap’). Skykomish. On N bank Skykomish River (old river bed, now dry)  on S side of present town of Gold Bar. Site also extended W towards mouth of Wallace River. Several houses, graves, tree burial site and potlatch house. People here were considered part of SKEH-whubsh band.  (5)  









38. huh-HAH’oo-salt (from s’HAH-oos meaning ‘sawbill duck’) Snohomish. On N bank of N Fork Skykomish R near junction with S Fork just W of present town of Index. Large potlatch house and several other houses were here. People here were considered SKEH-whubsh. It was from here that hunters went into the Cascade Mountains for mountain goat and other game as well as mountain blueberries, etc.  (5)








39. STAHPTS or skay-WABST. Snoqualmie. On the E bank of the Snoqualmie River at the mouth of Cherry Creek. One large winter longhouse. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.   (2, 8)








40.  tlah-WAH-dees (‘something growing’). Sammamish. At the N end of present Lake Washington at the mouth of the Sammamish River which, before 1916 when the lake was 10’ higher, was E of present mouth. Residents here were part of group called the tsah-PAHBSH (‘willow people’) who settled at house sites all along the Sammamish River. They were considered "poor" by other groups in the area.  (6, 7) 








41. too-oh-beh-DAHBSH. hah-choo-AHBSH (‘Lake people’). On the N shore of present Lake Washington at the mouth of McAleer Creek. Possibly one house. Part of small group having one other house site about two miles S of this location near the mouth of Thornton Creek.  (7)







1. "Cultural Resource Overview and Sample Survey of the Skagit Wild and Scenic River..." by Astrida R. Blukis Onat, Lee A. Bennett, and Jan L. Hollenbeck.  Seattle:  Institute of Cooperative Research, 1980.

2.  "Commission Findings on the Coast Salish and western Washington Indians" by Indian Claims Commission in Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians, v.5.  New York:  Garland Publishing, 1974.

3.  "The Coast Salish of Puget Sound" by Marian W. Smith in American Anthropologist, v. 43 [new series]: 197-211, 1941.

4.  "Cultural Resource inventory, Mountain Loop Highway improvements..." by Astrida R. Blukis Onat, Jean Fish and Edith Bedal.  Seattle:  BOAS, Inc., 1990.

5.  "Historical and Ethnological Study of the Snohomish Indian People" by Colin E. Tweddell in Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians, v.2.  New York:  Garland Publishing, 1974.

6.  "The Geographical Names Used by the Indians of the Pacific Coast" by T. T. Waterman in Geographical Review, v. 12 (2): 175-194, 1922.

7.  "Indian Lake Washington" by David Buerge in The [Seattle] Weekly, Aug 1-Aug 7, 1984.

8.  "Puget Sound Geography" by T. T. Waterman.  Washington DC:  National Anthropological Archives, mss.

9.  Indian Stories and Legends of the Stillaguamish, Sauks, and Allied Tribes by Nels Bruseth, Fairfield [WA]:  Ye Galleon Press, 1977.