Village Descriptions

Lummi-Bellingham section

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. whuh-whach-ko-NGEEN. Songish. Foul Bay.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. chuh-ko-NGEEN. Songish. Shoal (McNeill) Bay. This is the name of the people here as well as the name of the hill behind the Bay.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. see-CHUH-nulh. Songish. Oak Bay, NW shore. The place name is also the name of the group living here.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. skuh-NGEE-nuhs. Songish. Discovery Island. Original village re-settled about 1850 during Victoria smallpox epidemic. Newer term for the people here is tl’CHESS (‘island’) people.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. SNGECK-kuh (‘snowy’). Songish. Cadboro Bay.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. tsuhl-KHAH-loh. Saanich. Sidney Island, W shore. People here said to have scattered long ago.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. skweh-SEH-eh-mun. Saanich. Sidney Island, on lagoon S of Sidney Spit.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. EH-lehk-lung (‘houses’). Saanich. Mayne Island, at head of Miners Bay where dock is. One of 3 villages on Mayne Island shore of Active Pass. All people here were called skeh-SUCK (’Pass’) people. Dance houses here. Headman here at one time was too domineering for his group so they killed him.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. STAH-ees. Saanich. South Pender Island, inside Hay Point on Bedwell Harbor. People here moved to Saanichton in early 1800s. Reef-net location here.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. KWUH-nuhs (‘whale’). Saanich. Stuart Island, E shore Reid Harbor, near entrance (1880s). Occupied year-round.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11. lhuh-LHEE-ng’kwulh. Songish/Lummi. Henry Island, at head of Open Bay. One of 4 villages at N end San Juan Island said to have been original home of Songish and also Lummi, through sweh-TUHN, the mythical first man, who became ancestor of the lhuh-LEH-kuh-meesh people.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. p’kweekh-EEL-wuhlh (‘rotten-wood side’) Songish/Lummi. San Juan Island, on point near entrance to Mitchell Bay. One of 4 villages at N end of San Juan Island said to be original home of Songish, also Lummi, through sweh-TUHN, the mythical first man, who became ancestor of the lhuh-LEH-kuh-meesh people. "Big houses...a lot of Indians there" in mid-late 1800s.  (1, 2)

 

 

 

 

 

13. SMUH-yuh. Songish/Lummi. San Juan Island, on Garrison Bay at what is now called English Camp in the San Juan Island National Historical Park. Principal village of group occupying N end San Juan Island, said to be original home of Songish, also Lummi, through sweh-TUHN, the mythical first man, who became ancestor of the lhuh-LEH-kuh-meesh people.  A number of artifacts, both functional and ornamental, have been found here by archeologists.  Their evidence suggests this site had been continuously occupied at least from about 500AD until 1860 when British soldiers demolished an Indian house on what became the parade ground of their garrison.  (1, 13)

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. WH’LEHL-kluh. Songish/Lummi. San Juan Island, opposite Spieden Island, "the Fitzhugh place". One of 4 villages a N end of San Juan Island said to be original home of Songish, also Lummi, through sweh-TUHN, the mythical first man, who became ancestor of the lhuh-LEH-kuh-meesh people. Possibly same village as one reported "on N end Roach [sic] Harbor" which in mid-late 1800s had "10 large houses."  (1, 2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

15. [name unknown]. Lummi? San Juan Island, "at Griffins Bay...down in the American Camp." Probably post-contact. "Quite large buildings...more than one."  South of this village, on and above the beach along the Strait of Juan de Fuca, several miles W of Cattle Point, a site has been excavated by archeologists.  It shows evidence of most likely seasonal occupation for at least the past 5000 years! (2, 13)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16. EH-leh-luhng (‘houses’). Lummi. Orcas Island, at site of present town of West Sound. "One great big house...150’x50’."  A clam bed, which was unusual for being cultivated, was near here.  (1, 2, 3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17. tsuhl-WHEE’k-seeng. Lummi. Orcas Island at or near site of present town of East Sound. About 3 houses here, biggest 200’x60’. People of all 3 villages on East Sound were called SWEH-luhkh for the same name given to nearby present Mount Constitution.  (1, 2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18. muh-KWUHL-neech. Lummi. Orcas Island at Rosario on East Sound. People of all 3 villages on East Sound were called SWEH-luhkh for the same name given to nearby present Mount Constitution.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19. whuht’k-AW-ch’lh. Lummi. Orcas Island at Olga on East Sound. People of all 3 villages on East Sound were called SWEH-luhkh for the same name given to nearby present Mount Constitution.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20. tluhl-TLUHL-neep (‘homesite’). Lummi. Lopez Island at Flat Point. People from here said to have migrated to Gooseberry Point village.  (1, 3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21. wh’s-WHEHK-ee-yum. Lummi. On Nooksack River on high land at mouth of stream just below Tennant Lake. Probably occupied only after 1850 when river changed course and Bainbridge moved his house planks from wh'sh-eech-EH-wuhlh (village 22) and built a fish weir here .  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22. wh’sh-eech-EH-wuhlh (‘portage’). Lummi. On Lummi River about 3 miles above its mouth. Site used mainly for fall fishing. Main Lummi weir. Chiefs Washington and Chowitsut each had large seasonal houses here. Small over-winter population. Site abandoned about 1850 when river changed course.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23. wheh-KWAH-kwuhs. Lummi. Just S of N mouth of Lummi River. Possibly one winter house here. Site used mainly for fall fishing.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24. MAH-mlee.  Originally 'coastal Nooksack', also known as 'stockaders' or skhuhl-EH-hun.  Displaced probably in early 1800s by Lummi.  On Lummi Bay below Smugglers Slough.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

25. TEHM-wheh-uhk-sun (‘gooseberry point’) Lummi. At Gooseberry Point on Lummi Peninsula. Main Lummi settlement in early-mid 1800s. Two large houses here plus stockade built about 1830. Houses were named WH’LAH-luh-muhs (‘facing-each-other’) and this has been mentioned as a possible source of the name 'Lummi'.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

26. swhuhl-EE-sun (‘narrowing’). Lummi. At N end of ‘the portage’-- formerly a broad gravel prairie connecting the Lummi Peninsula with Portage Island. One of main Lummi villages, site of 400’ long potlatch house built by Chowitsut who signed 1855 treaty as Lummi head chief.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27. KEH’k-luh-kun. Lummi. On Portage Island at S end of ‘the portage’--formerly a broad gravel prairie connecting the Lummi Peninsula with Portage Island.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

28. WHUHLH-kah-yum (‘snake place’). Lummi? Just N of Fish Pt near mouth of Nooksack River. Originally 'coastal Nooksack', also known as 'stockaders' or skhuhl-EH-hun village largely abandoned when they were conquered by Lummi, who occupied village only after settlers had arrived. In 1861 this became Old Lummi Town and the principal Lummi settlement built around Father Chirouse’s church.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29. EH’k-lehk. Lummi? At Marietta near mouth of Nooksack River. Originally 'coastal Nooksack', also known as 'stockaders' or skhuhl-EH-hun village abandoned by them when they were conquered by Lummi who possibly then occupied the site.  (1, 3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30. whuh-KWAL-luh-whum (‘dog salmon place’). Lummi. On Bellingham Bay at mouth of Squalicum Creek. One house built perhaps after white settlement.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31. STEEK-sabsh. noo-WAH-hah (a large group mostly displaced from coastal sites by Samish). Samish Lake, at southern tip. One large winter house.  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32. [name unknown]. Samish. "On [south] end of Chuckanut Bay...3 buildings...120’x60’". (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33. [name unknown]. Samish. At Blanchard on Samish Bay. "Two buildings...120’x60’".  (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34. aht-SEH-kehd. Samish. At Edison on Samish Bay, south side of Edison Slough. "Four buildings...60’x40’".  This may have been a post-contact village.  An earlier noo-WAH-hah village was located up the slough near present village of Bow.  (2, 4, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35. [name unknown]. Samish. At Samish River. "Four buildings...120’x60’".  This may have been a post-contact village.  Earlier noo-WAH-hah villages were located upriver at Jarman Prairie near the confluence of Friday Creek, and at Warner Prairie near the confluence of Dry Creek.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36. eh-TSEH-kun. Samish. On Samish Island, S shore at E end. Received people from SWHAH-ee-melh (village 39) about 1850. After this move village consisted on one house 200’ long.  (1, 5)  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37. [name unknown]. Samish. Samish Island, N end. "Biggest village of the tribe [late 1800s]. "One large building, 4 smaller [60’x40’] buildings." (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38. gwuhng-kung-EH-luh. Samish. Guemes Island, W shore. One house, 400’x40’ with about 25 families. Known as New Guemes Village, built about 1850(?) by 9 men.  (1, 2, 4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

39. SWHAH-ee-melh. Samish. Guemes Island, S shore just W of ferry landing. Seen by Spanish explorers in 1792 who reported two large houses. In early 1800s a stockade was added to this site. Village became so crowded that part of people moved across Channel to keh-LEH-tseelch village on Fidalgo Island. Village abandoned about 1850 when people moved to eh-TSEH-kun village on Samish Island.  (1, 5)  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40. keh-LEH-tseelch (‘ironwoods’). Samish. On Fidalgo Island side of Guemes Channel. Settled in early 1800s by villagers from SWHAH-ee-melh village across Guemes Channel.  (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41. kwuh-kwulh-AW’k-awl (‘camas’). Samish. Fidalgo Island, near present town of Fidalgo on Fidalgo Bay at E end of former railroad bridge. Abandoned early 1800s, continued in use as camp site for harvesting camas on prairie at head of bay. Mid-late 1800s possibly same site had "4 large houses".  (1, 2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42. baht-SLAHL-lah-oos or LHA-lha’k-oos. Samish. On Padilla Bay at Bayview. Originally a noo-WAH’k-hah village--a large group pushed inland by wars with Samish. Large oyster bed nearby. "One large bldg...about 4 small buildings" mid-late 1800s.  (2, 4, 9, 10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43. kah-LEH-kut. Swinomish. At head of Padilla Bay near present town of Whitney at the highway bridge.  (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

44. tsoop-tah-DAHT-tsee. Swinomish. On Swinomish Slough 3 miles from present town of La Conner.  (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

45. d’KWEE-ook-oosh. Swinomish. On Sullivan Slough several miles NE of present town of La Conner. One of main Swinomish villages.  Houses here were surrounded by deep ditches filled with sharp ironwood stakes.  The village could be reached only at high tide by large canoes.  Smallpox virtually wiped out the population with only one family surviving, that of La-hail-by known as The Prophet.  (4, 8, 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46. SDEE-oos. Swinomish. On Skagit Bay just S of Tosi (Lone Tree) Point. One of main Swinomish villages.  (4, 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47. SKWEE-kwee-kahb. Lower Skagit. On Skagit Bay just S of mouth of N Fork Skagit River.  Two houses here.  Just above this village on the N Fork were two other permanent village sites--HAHL-bah-sood and peh-DEE-doop.  A lot of deer and elk on the flats nearby.  (6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

48. DUH-gwah-lah. Lower Skagit or Swinomish. North Whidbey Island at Dugualla Bay. Two house sites directly across bay from each other. Deer taken in surrounding woods.  (7, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49. chuh-TOO-sub. Lower Skagit. Whidbey Island at Crescent Harbor near Poinell Point. A small permanent village. Duck hunting area nearby.  (7, 9)    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50. [name uncertain]. Lower Skagit. Whidbey Island at Oak Harbor near Maylor Point. Old and very large village, might have been the source of the name "Skagit".  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51. aht-sah-LAY-dee. Lower Skagit. Camano Island at Utsalady Bay. Village occupied by Kikiallus group.  (4, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52. kwaht-kahd’ch-KED. Lower Skagit. At confluence of N Fork and S Fork Skagit River.  (7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53. kee-keek-AH-low-sah-lay. Lower Skagit. On S Fork Skagit River at mouth of Carpenter Creek between present towns of Conway and Fir. Principal village of Kikiallus group.  (4, 7, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

54. TSAL-gah-hahbsh. Upper Skagit. On Skagit River, at Mt Vernon, just N of town and W of cemetery. One large house. Collective name for people at sites between Mt Vernon and Sedro Woolley was duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH.  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

55. swee-WEES-hub. Upper Skagit. On S bank of Skagit River, S of present town of Burlington, E of RR bridge. One large house. Collective name for people at sites between Mt Vernon and Sedro Woolley was duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH.  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

56. duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH. Upper Skagit. On W or N bank of Skagit River across from opening of Nookachamps Creek. This was principal village and ceremonial center for people at sites between Mt Vernon and Sedro Woolley including those on Nookachamps Creek drainage.  (11)

 

 

 

 

 

 

57. WHATS-awlk-uhl (‘house on high ground’). Upper Skagit. On bench E side Nookachamps Creek above Barney Lake. One large winter house. Famous fishing site for suckers and silver salmon. There is a legend that this village was once nearly wiped out by raiders from the village of aht-sah-LAY-dee on Camano Island, only one young woman and her small brother-in-law surviving.  People here were considered duh-kwuh-CHAHBSH, with principal village site at mouth of Nookachamps Creek on Skagit River.  (8, 10, 11)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

58. SPELL-whuhn ('prairie). Nooksack. On Anderson Creek near present town of Goshen. Village included longhouse later moved to Deming. Located near fishing site as well as prairie where wild carrots were dug.  (5, 12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

59. t’HEE-teekh. Nooksack. On Anderson Creek about a mile S of SPELL-whuhn village.  (12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.  "Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits" by Wayne Prescott Suttles in Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians, v.1.  New York:  Garland Publishing, 1974.

2.  Duwamish et al vs. United States of America, F-275.  Washington DC:  US Court of Claims, 1927.

3.  The Lummi Indians of Northwest Washington by Bernhard J. Stern.  New York:  AMS Press, 1969.

4.  "The Coast Salish of Puget Sound" by Marian W. Smith in American Anthropologist, v. 43 [new series]: 197-211, 1941.

5.  "Central Coast Salish" by Wayne Suttles in Handbook of North American Indians, Northwest Coast, v.7.  Washington DC:  Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.

6.  "Skwikwikwab: a methodological study of prehistoric Puget Sound settlement" by Astrida R. Blukis Onat.  Washington State University.  Thesis (PhD), 1980.

7.  "Commission Findings on the Coast Salish and western Washington Indians" by Indian Claims Commission in Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians, v.5.  New York:  Garland Publishing, 1974.

8.  Indians of Skagit County by Chief Martin J. Sampson.  La Conner [WA]:  Skagit County Historical Society, 1972.

9.  "Southern Coast Salish" by Wayne Suttles and Barbara Lane in Handbook of  North American Indians, Northwest Coast (v.7).  Washington DC:  Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.

10.  Valley of the Spirits, the Upper Skagit Indians of Western Washington by June M. Collins.  Seattle:  University of Washington Press, 1974.

11. "Cultural Resource Overview and Sample Survey of the Skagit Wild and Scenic River..." by Astrida R. Blukis Onat, Lee A. Bennett, and Jan L. Hollenbeck.  Seattle:  Institute of Cooperative Research, 1980.

12. "Inventory of Native American religious use, practises, localities and resources..." by Astrida R. Blukis Onat and Jan L. Hollenbeck.  Seattle:  Institute of Cooperative Research, 1981.

13.  Exploring Coast Salish Prehistory, the archeology of San Juan Island by Julie K. Stein.  Seattle:  University of Washington Press, 2000.