Coast Salish Villages of Puget Sound

Village Descriptions

Duwamish-Seattle section

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. STAHPTS or skay-WABST. Snoqualmie. On the E bank of the Snoqualmie River at the mouth of Cherry Creek. One large winter longhouse. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. stoo-WUH-yoog’w ('throat-like'). Snoqualmie. On Stoessel Creek, the largest tributary to Tolt River, possibly at their confluence. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (2, 3, 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. whahl-AHLT’w ('decorated house') or TOHLT’w. Snoqualmie. At the confluence of the Tolt and Snoqualmie Rivers, on a flat opposite the present town of Carnation. The second largest village of the Snoqualmie, this was also the residence of the powerful Kanim family as well as the "capitol of the people". Whahl-AHLT’w referred specifically to a special longhouse where visiting elders and chiefs would stay to attend council. This longhouse also served as an educational center for skills, customs and laws. A steep sand hill nearby offered the best natural defense in the drainage. This was a good place to fish for dog salmon. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. SWHAH-see-yahts. Snoqualmie. On a prairie near the mouth of Griffin Creek at Snoqualmie River. Five winter houses here. A good place to fish with gillnets. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (2, 3, 5, 6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. t’KWAI-kwai. Snoqualmie. At Patterson Creek, more exact location not known but assumed to be where the creek joins Snoqualmie River. Eight winter houses here. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (2, 3, 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. YELL’h ('raging river'). Snoqualmie. On the Snoqualmie River at the present town of Fall City. This was the largest village of the Snoqualmie with 18 longhouses, and, along with TOLT’w, one of the most important. In the early-mid 1800s this was the place where young men were sent for military trading. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. t’KELL (‘place for soaking things’). Snoqualmie. At the mouth of Tokul Creek onto the Snoqualmie River. Seven winter houses here. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable. (2, 3, 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. SKWED (‘underpart, to which the stream plunges’). Snoqualmie. On Snoqualmie River just below Snoqualmie Falls. Three winter houses here. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. BAH-whahb (‘prairie’). Snoqualmie. At Snoqualmie Prairie near the center of the present town of Snoqualmie. Eight winter houses were located here at this large prairie valley in the spiritual center of the Snoqualmie world. This was the home of the sah-NAH-wah, the leader of the Snoqualmie band living on the prairie, i.e., villages 9, 10 and 11. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (2, 3, 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. too-tsoo-WAH-deb (referring to 'a person dying of tuberculosis'). Snoqualmie. Located on Snoqualmie Prairie between the S and Middle Forks Snoqualmie River. Five winter longhouses were here. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (2, 3, 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

11. sah-KOH-koh or SAHT-sahks. Snoqualmie. One mile below the present town of North Bend, on W side of S Fork Snoqualmie River. Five longhouses here.  At one time this location was a center for ceremonial performances and potlatches. This was the last village on the heavily-traveled trail from Puget Sound, near present-day downtown Seattle, over Snoqualmie Pass to the areas inhabited by interior tribes such as the Yakama and Klikitat. This village was occupied by the Snoqualmie who called themselves sdho-KWAHL-byook'w, or ‘people of sdho-KWAHL’, said to refer to Moon the Transformer who made this world habitable.  (2, 3, 5, 6, 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. s’QUOAH. Sammamish. At the S end of Lake Sammamish at the State Park where Issaquah Creek empties into the lake. At least one longhouse stood here.  The people here were considered uncouth by the salt-water Duwamish who, when their children were misbehaving told them they were acting  just like those people from s'QUOAH.  (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

13. tlah-WAH-dees (‘something growing’). Sammamish. At the N end of present Lake Washington at the mouth of the Sammamish River which, before 1916 when the lake was 10’ higher, was E of present mouth. Residents here were part of group called the tsah-PAHBSH (‘meander dwellers’) who settled at house sites all along the Sammamish River. They were considered "poor" by other groups in the area.  (2, 8) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. TUHB-tuh-byook'w ('loamy place'). Duwamish. At the mouth of Juanita Creek onto Lake Washington. One of three house sites (also villages 15 and 16) of the TAHB-tah-byook'w group. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

15. STAH-lahl. Duwamish. On Lake Washington near the present town of Kirkland. One of three house sites (also villages 14 and 16) of the TAHB-tah-byook group. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

16. [name uncertain]. Duwamish. On Lake Washington at Yarrow Bay. One of three house sites (also villages 14 and 15) of the TAHB-tah-byook group. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

17. SAH-tsah-kahl (‘head of the slough’). Duwamish. At the head of Mercer Slough which formerly flowed nearly 3 miles inland. This was the main village of the sah-tsah-kah-LOOBSH, ‘head of the slough people’, who also occupied nearby village 18.  The attack on the settlers at Elliott Bay in January 1856 was staged from here.  All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

18. pah-pah-DEEL. Duwamish. Near where Mercer Slough formerly entered Lake Washington, near present-day Factoria. This was one of the villages of the sah-tsah-kah-LOOBSH, ‘head of the slough people’, who also occupied nearby village 17. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

19. PAH-sah-weh. Duwamish. Probably just N of the mouth of May Creek onto Lake Washington. Two longhouses here occupied by the shoo-bahl-too-AHBSH, ‘drying house people’, which also occupied nearby village 20. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

20. shoo-BAHL-too ('place where things are dried'). Duwamish. Probably just S of the mouth of May Creek onto Lake Washington. The village was occupied by the shoo-bahl-too-AHBSH, ‘drying house people’, which also occupied nearby village 19. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

21. twhahb-KOH (‘confluence’), skah-TEHLBSH and spah-DEHL-gwelh (‘lots of dust on the riverside’). Duwamish. At and just above the confluence of Cedar River and the former Black River near the site of the present-day Renton airport. These three house sites constituted the main winter village of the skah-TEHLB-shahbsh--a group which took its name from SKY-taw, a supernatural being with long hair who lived nearby at the bottom of the Black River, and was believed to confer the power to attract wealth on those with whom it wrestled.  The relatively shallow Black River, which was the principal drainage of Lake Washington, ceased to effectively exist in 1916 when the Lake level was lowered.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

22. suh-TEE-cheeb (‘wading place’). Duwamish. On Lake Washington at Bryn Mawr. Three longhouses of the skah-TEHLB-shahbsh--a group which took its name from SKY-taw, a supernatural being with long hair who lived nearby at the bottom of the Black River, and was believed to confer the power to attract wealth on those with whom it wrestled. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

23. [name not known]. Duwamish. On Lake Washington at Rainier Beach. Possible village site of the skah-TEHLB-shahbsh. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

24. [name not known]. Duwamish. On Lake Washington at Wetmore Slough. Possible village site of the skah-TEHLB-shahbsh. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25. [name not known]. Duwamish. On Lake Washington at present-day Leschi Park. Possible village site of the skah-TEHLB-shahbsh.  All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

26. SWAH-tsoo-gweel ('portage'). Duwamish. Around the top margins of Union Bay. Five longhouses were located on the N edge of the bay, which--pre-1916--lay nearly a mile further N. One longhouse was near the present UW steam plant, and one near the former Battelle Institute campus. This was the principal village of an influential group known as hloo-weelh-AHBSH who took their name from the s’hloo-WEELH (literally, "a tiny hole drilled to measure the thickness of a canoe"), the narrow passage through the resource-rich Union Bay marsh. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

27. hehs-KWEE-kweel ('skate'). Duwamish. At Edgewater Park near the point at the S edge of the mouth of Union Bay onto Lake Washington. One longhouse here may have been used as a potlatch house. This site was occupied by the influential group known as hloo-weelh-AHBSH who took their name from the s’hloo-WEELH (literally, "a tiny hole dirlled to measure the thickness of a canoe"), the narrow passage through the resource-rich Union Bay marsh. Their burial ground was on nearby Foster Island where the dead were placed in boxes tied up in the branches of trees. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo present-day Lake Washington.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

28. TLEHLS (‘minnows’ or ‘shiners’). Duwamish. At Wolf Bay on Lake Washington. One longhouse was here. The people here may have been associated with the hloo-weelh-AHBSH who took their name from the s’hloo-WEELH (literally, "a tiny hole dirlled to measure the thickness of a canoe"), the narrow passage through the resource-rich Union Bay marsh. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

29. too-HOO-beed. Duwamish. On Lake Washington about 1/4 mile N of the mouth of Thornton Creek. One house here belonging to a group called too-oh-beh-DAHBSH. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

30. SAH-tsoo-tseed. Duwamish. On Lake Washington at the mouth of McAleer Creek. Possibly one house here belonging to a group called too-oh-beh-DAHBSH. All the people living around Lake Washington were collectively known as hah-choo-AHBSH, that is, people of HAH-choo, meaning 'a large lake' and referring to present-day Lake Washington.  (2, 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31. shill-SHOHL (‘threading a needle, evidently for the narrow opening out to the Sound’). Duwamish. On the N shore of what is now called Salmon Bay.  The headman here when the settlers arrived was called Shilshole Curly.  This village site was destroyed when the Chittenden Locks were built in the early 1900s. The people here were called shill-shohl-AHBSH.  (2, 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32. dzee-dzee-LAH-letch (‘little crossing-over place’). Duwamish. In present-day downtown Seattle exactly where King Street Station now stands. Before this area was filled there was a neck of land here separating Elliott Bay from a lagoon to the east where flounder were taken; a trail connected the two. The village was located by the trail, hence its name. Eight large longhouses (60’x120’) plus a large potlatch house, where people from all over the area gathered, were located here. This was the most important village on the bay and c.1800 home to about 200 people.  At one time Chief Seattle lived in one of the houses here. All the people living around Elliott Bay, the Duwamish, Black and Cedar Rivers were collectively known as the doo-AHBSH, or people of the doo (‘inside’).  (2, 5, 9, 10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

33. tohl-AHL-too (‘herring house’) and later hah-AH-poos (‘where there are horse clams’). Duwamish. On the W bank of the Duwamish River at its (former) mouth onto Elliott Bay. The original village site had been inhabited since the 6th century! It was abandoned sometime before 1800 but there were reports from elders that seven (60’x120’) longhouse once stood here as well as a large (60’x360’) potlatch house. At the successor village near the same site there were three longhouses occupied by 75-100 people. All the people living around Elliott Bay, the Duwamish, Black and Cedar Rivers were collectively known as the doo-AHBSH, or people of the doo (‘inside’).  (2, 9, 10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34. too-PAHLH-tehb. Duwamish. At mouth of easternmost estuary of Duwamish River onto Elliott Bay. All the people living around Elliott Bay, the Duwamish, Black and Cedar Rivers were collectively known as the doo-AHBSH, or people of the doo (‘inside’).  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

35. yee-LEH-khood (‘basket cap’ like those worn by the Yakima people). Duwamish. On the W bank of the Duwamish River where Port of Seattle Terminal 107 is now located. An old village site. All the people living around Elliott Bay, the Duwamish, Black and Cedar Rivers were collectively known as the doo-AHBSH, or people of the doo (‘inside’).  (2, 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

36. too-KWHEHL-teed (‘a large open space’). Duwamish. In a (former) bend of the Duwamish River at the N end of present-day Boeing Field. "Two houses" were said to have stood here in mid-1800s. This group was known as kehl-kah-KWEH-yah, ‘proud people’. All the people living around Elliott Bay, the Duwamish, Black and Cedar Rivers were collectively known as the doo-AHBSH, or people of the doo (‘inside’).  (2, 5, 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

37. skoh-AHL-koh (‘confluence’). Duwamish. At the confluence of the Green River and the (former) Black River at the N edge of present-day Fort Dent Park. Three house sites were here. At skoh-AHL-ko proper on the S bank of the Black River where it joined the Green (then White) River two longhouses stood on the levee built by the river. At skah-LEELS (‘filthy stones’) on the W bank of the Green River opposite the mouth of the Black River there were four longhouses. And at t’ah-WED-eets (‘river duck’) on the N bank of the Black River opposite skoh-AHL-koh there were perhaps two houses. These houses may not have all been occupied at the same time. This village was occupied by the riverine Duwamish or doo-AHBSH, after doo (‘inside’) referring to (present-day) Duwamish River, Black River and Cedar River, along all of which this group resided.  (2, 10, 11)

 

 

 

 

 

 

38. spah-bah-DEED (‘little mountain’) and too-hoo-DEE-doo (‘little inside river’). Duwamish. On the N and S bank respectively of the (former) Black River just below Taylor Creek in present day Renton not far E of the old Earlington Golf Course. This was the main and defining village of the riverine Duwamish or doo-AHBSH, after doo (‘inside’) referring to the (present-day) Duwamish River, Black River and Cedar River, along all of which this group resided. The headman here in the early 1800s was kwee-AHK-teed who was an influential figure in the Central Puget Sound region.  (2, 11)    

 

 

 

 

 

 

39. sawh-WAHWH-weh-wad (‘place of whistling’). Duwamish. On Cedar River about 2 miles above present-day town of Renton. This village was occupied by the riverine Duwamish or doo-AHBSH, after doo (‘inside’) referring to (present-day) Duwamish River, Black River and Cedar River, along all of which this group resided.  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

40. doo-WEH-kwoolts. Duwamish. On Cedar River at present-day town of Maple Valley where a small stream enters the river. A well-known 19th century shaman here went by the name of Dr Jack.  This village was occupied by the riverine Duwamish or doo-AHBSH, after doo (‘inside’) referring to (present-day) Duwamish River, Black River and Cedar River, along all of which this group resided.  (2, 10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41. STOOK (‘logjam’). Duwamish. On the E bank of the lower White (now Green) River at the lower end of a huge logjam, and at the junction with an overland trade route. Probably 8 large longhouses were here. The village was possibly formed by five high-class families who had moved from spah-bah-DEED, the main Duwamish village. The people living here were called stoo-KAHBSH, ‘logjam people’, and they lorded it over their neighbors to the south from the village of choo-tuhb-AHLT’w (flea’s house). This was the home village of shoh-LEE-tsuh who was the mother of Chief Seattle (SEE-alth).  (2, 6, 10, 12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

42. choo-tuhb-AHLT’w (flea’s house). Duwamish. On the E bank of the lower White (now Green) River probably at the S end of the logjam which formed around 1800. The people from this village were treated as slaves by the high-class residents of nearby STOOK.  They even had to remove their footprints from the ground when they were leaving the latter village!  (2, 10, 12) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43. ill-AHL-koh ('confluence', from, perhaps, 'striped water',  possibly from the striped appearance of the river below the confluence before the waters merged). Muckleshoot. At the historic confluence of the White and Green Rivers at the present-day town of Auburn. In mid-1800s there were located here "...about 17 buildings...on an average...each building would be about 36 by 60 feet." The people living here were known as the skwohp-AHBSH or Green ('fluctuating') River people.  (2, 5, 10)  

 

 

 

 

 

 

44. TCHAH-kwahb.  Muckleshoot.  At the mouth of Dog Salmon Creek.  An old village site.  (2)  A little further upstream, at the mouth of Big Soos Creek, was another Muckleshoot village,  SOOS.  In mid-1800s there were located here "...two buildings...about 36 by 60 feet."  The people living at both sites were known as the skwohp-AHBSH or Green ('fluctuating') River people.  (5, 10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

45. ts’koh-KAH-beed, (possibly) same as SKUH-buhd ('to make something warm', like a hen sitting on her chicks).  Muckleshoot. On the Green River about 4 miles E of present-day town of Auburn at the bend now spanned by the highway (old Elliot) bridge. An old village site, in mid-1800s there were "...two buildings..." here. The people living here were known as the skwohp-AHBSH or Green ('fluctuating') River people.  (2, 5, 10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

46. kee-AHTS. Muckleshoot. On the Green River not far upstream from village 45 at a place "...now [1927] known as Mike Burns Creek." In mid-1800s there was one large building here. (5)  Near this spot was an old village site, STAH-kw'shlud ('where the trail descends' from the Muckleshoot plateau), "on a level flat at the mouth of a creek".  (2)  Probably just N of the c.1950 (?) Auburn Academy airport. The people living here were known as the skwohp-AHBSH or Green ('fluctuating') River people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

47. SHOOK-seed. Muckleshoot. On the Green River not far upstream from village 46. In mid-1800s there were "...three...buildings..." here. The people living here were known as the skwohp-AHBSH or Green ('fluctuating') River people.  (5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

48. noo-WAHK-um. Muckleshoot. On the Green River at the mouth of Newaukum Creek. In the mid-1800s there was one large building here. This was home to the chief known as 'Ellensburg Kitsap', who was an important leader during the Treaty War.  The people living here were known as the skwohp-AHBSH or Green ('fluctuating') River people.  (5, 10)  Further upriver from this location was the old and important village of tsuhk-w'TSKEH-bahts, 'where the [edible plant known as the] fossil fern is found'.  This plant is also known as 'evergreen fern' and 'indian banana'.  It grows in damp places as a clump of  tall stalks with a cluster of edible pods at the bottom.  The pods, which look like one's hands placed palm to palm, are baked in a pit heated by hot stones.  (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

49. spwee-YAWL-ah-pahbsh (from pwee-YAWL-ahp, 'twisting' referring to the name of the river, although according to (2) the word means 'ample supply of everything'). Puyallup. Located at the mouth of the Puyallup River in what is now the city of Tacoma, at the current intersection of 15th Street and Pacific Avenue. This was the central site of an extended village which included TWAH-deb-tsahb, village 50, as well as two other nearby house sites, villages 51 and 52. People of this village were the "real" Puyallup.  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

50. TWAH-deb-tsahb. Puyallup. Located in what is now the city of Tacoma where a creek, which no longer exists, emptied into Commencement Bay, at the current intersection of 24th Street and Pacific Avenue. This, along with villages 49, 51 and 52, was part of the extended village spwee-YAWL-ah-pahbsh.  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

51. TSAHTS-kahd (‘main village’). Puyallup. Located in the present-day city of Tacoma where Clay Creek empties into the Puyallup River not far from the site of the old Cushman Indian School. This, along with villages 49, 50 and 52, was part of the extended village spwee-YAWL-ah-pahbsh.  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52. kahl-KAHL-awk. Puyallup. Located in the present-day town of Fife at the former mouth of Wapato Creek, just above the grasslands. This, along with villages 49, 50 and 51, was part of the extended village spwee-YAWL-ah-pahbsh.  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

53. s’HAWHT’l-ahbch (from HAWHT’l, the name of present-day Hylebos Waterway). Located in present-day NE Tacoma near where Hybelos Waterway empties into Commencement Bay. People from this village were said to have moved across the Sound to establish a village at present-day Gig Harbor, TWAH-well-kawh. Silver salmon were plentiful in Hylebos Waterway.  (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

54. STEH-khoog'wl ('where one pushes a canoe over').. Puyallup. At the present day village of Portage on the narrow stretch of land connecting Maury and Vashon Islands. Here, in the mid-1800s, there were "...seven buildings [about 35’x50’] and about seven families in each." Part of the skwah-PAHBSH band, centered at TWAH-well-kawh in present-day Gig Harbor.  (5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.  "Commission Findings on the Coast Salish and western Washington Indians" by Indian Claims Commission in Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians, v.5.  New York:  Garland Publishing, 1974.

2.  "Puget Sound Geography" by T. T. Waterman.  Washington DC:  National Anthropological Archives, mss. 

3.  "A Cultural Resource Overview:  Prehistory, Ethnography and History.  Mt Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest" by Jan L. Hollenbeck.  Washington [DC]:  USDA, Forest Service, 1987.

4.  "The Coast Salish of Puget Sound" by Marian W. Smith in American Anthropologist, v. 43 [new series]: 197-211, 1941.

5.  Duwamish et al vs. United States of America, F-275.  Washington DC:  US Court of Claims, 1927.

6.  "The Snoqualmie:  A Puget Sound Chiefdom" by Kenneth D. Tollefson in Ethnology, 26: 121-136, 1987.

7.  "The Sacred Snoqualmie" by David M. Buerge in the [Seattle] Weekly, Aug 5-Aug 11, 1987.

8.  "Indian Lake Washington" by David Buerge in the [Seattle] Weekly, Aug 1-Aug 7, 1984.

9.  "Seattle Before Seattle" by David Buerge in the [Seattle] Weekly, Dec 17-Dec 23, 1980.

10.  The Puyallup-Nisqually by Marian W. Smith.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 1940.

11.  "Requiem for a River" by David M. Buerge in the [Seattle] Weekly, Oct 16-Oct 22, 1985.

12.  "Political Organization of the Duwamish" by Kenneth D. Tollefson in Ethnology, 28:  135-149, 1989.